1. Vingilis E: Drinking drivers and alcoholics: Are they from the same population?, in Smart RG, Glaser FB, Israel Y, et al. (eds): Research advances in alcohol and drug problems. New York, Plenum Press; 1983:299-342.
  2. Runge JW, Pulliam CL, Carter JM, Thomason MH: Enforcement of drunken driving laws in cases involving injured intoxicated drivers. Ann Emerg Med 1996;27:66-72.
  3. Maio RF, Waller PF, Blow FC, Hill EM, Singer KM: Alcohol abuse/dependence in motor vehicle crash victims presenting to the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 1997;4:256-262.
  4. Orsay EM, Doan-Wiggins L, Lewis R, Lucke R, RamaKrishnan V: The impaired driver: Hospital and police detection of alcohol and other drugs of abuse in motor vehicle crashes. Ann Emerg Med 1994;24:51-55.
  5. Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Smith GS, McDuff DR, Hebel JR, Gorelick DA: Psychoactive Substance Dependence Among Trauma Center Patients. JAMA 1992;267:2756-2759.
  6. 1993 Texas Survey of Substance Abuse Among Adults. 1994. Austin, TX, Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse.
  7. Bien TH, Miller WR, Tonigan JS: Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a review. Addiction 1993;88:315-336.
  8. Lacey, JH, Jones, RK, and Wiliszowski, CH. Validation of problem drinking screening instruments for DWI offenders. NHTSA Technical Report. 1999. Washington DC, US Department of Transportation.
  9. Cherpitel CJ: Screening for alcohol problems in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1995;26:158-166.
  10. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts - 1998. DOT HS 808 983. 1999. Washington DC, US Department of Transportation.
  11. Maull KI, Kinning LS, Hickman JK: Culpability and accountability of hospitalized injured alcohol-impaired drivers. JAMA 1984;252:1880-1883.
  12. Gentilello LM, Duggan P, Drummond D, et al: Major injury as a unique opportunity to initiate treatment in the alcoholic. Am J Surg 1988;156:558-561.
  13. Chang G, Astrachan BM: The emergency department surveillance of alcohol intoxication after motor vehicle accidents. JAMA 1988;260:2533-2536.
  14. Soderstrom CA, Birschback JM, Dischnger PC: Injured drivers and alcohol use: culpability, convictions, and pre- and post-crash driving history. J Trauma 1990;30:1208-1214.
  15. National Commission Against Drunk Driving. Drunk drivers escaping detection through the Emergency Department. 1999. Washington DC.
  16. American College of Emergency Physicians. Alcohol abuse and motor vehicle safety. American College of Emergency Physicians Policy #400195. 2000.
  17. Dawson D: Beyond black, white and Hispanic: race, ethnic origin and drinking patterns in the United States. Journal of Substance Abuse 1998;10:321-339.
  18. Nielson A: Examining drinking patterns and problems among hispanic groups: results from a national survey. J Stud Alcohol 2000;61:301-310.

Continue to Appendix 1 Return to Contents