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IV. IDENTIFYING PROMISING-PRACTICES STATES

Overall promising-practices scores were assigned to each of the 47 States with legislated motorcycle rider education programs by summing the total points awarded within the program administration, rider education, and licensing areas. A total of 36 points were possible for the promising-practices scale. To identify clusters of States with similar practices, the States were classified as “low,” “medium,” and “high” on the basis of the distribution of their overall scores. Scores one standard deviation above the mean were classified as “high” and those one standard deviation below the mean as “low.” All other scores were assigned to the “medium” category. Clusters of States for the overall promising-practices score are displayed in Table 2, along with the mean and standard deviation for the scale. Overall, 10 States were classified as “high” promising-practice States: Oregon, Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Maryland, Ohio, Hawaii, Washington, and Minnesota. These States satisfy most of the key promising practices identified by our model to some extent. Eight States were classified as “low” promisingpractices scores: Kansas, Arizona, Kentucky, New Jersey, West Virginia, Wyoming, Rhode Island, and South Carolina. These States engage in very few of the promising practices identified by our model. The remaining 29 States fall somewhere in the middle in terms of promising-practices engagement.

In addition to calculating overall promising-practices scores, subscale scores for the three areas of program administration, rider education, and licensing were also computed. Subscale scores reveal greater detail about the features of a State’s rider education and licensing activities and are especially valuable for comparing across the three dimensions of the promising-practices model. Subscale scores for each State are presented in Table 3. For the program administration scale, scores ranged from a low of 0 (12 States) to a high of 5 (Maryland and Oregon) out of a possible 6 points. The rider education scale comprised more variables and was scored out of 22 possible points. Idaho had the highest score for this scale (16) and South Carolina the lowest (1). Finally, the licensing promising-practices subscale ranged from 1 (New Jersey) to 6 (Delaware and South Dakota) out of a possible 8 points.

Table 2. Classification of States by Promising-Practices Score

Low promising-practices score States Medium promising-practices score States High promising-practices score States
State Score State Score State Score
KS 9 ND 18 OR 24
AZ 9 FL 18 DE 23
KY 8 PA 18 ID 23
NJ 8 TN 18 NV 21
WV 7 SD 17 NM 21
WY 7 NE 17 MD 20
RI 4 TX 17 OH 19
SC 3 WI 17 HI 19
VT 17 WA 19
VA 16 MN 19
IN 16
NY 16
IA 15
MO 15
CA 15
NC 15
NH 14
MT 13
UT 13
IL 13
AL 13
CT 12
GA 12
LA 12
MA 12
MI 11
OK 11
CO 11
ME 11
Mean = 14.6; Standard Deviation = 4.9

Table 3. Promising-Practices Subscale Scores, by State

State Program Administration Rider Education Licensing
AL 1 10 2
AZ 0 6 3
CA 2 9 4
CO 1 7 3
CT 1 7 4
DE 4 13 6
FL 4 9 5
GA 1 7 4
HI 3 11 5
IA 1 9 5
ID 4 16 3
IL 2 8 3
IN 0 12 4
KS 0 4 5
KY 0 6 2
LA 0 9 3
MA 1 9 2
MD 5 12 3
ME 1 7 3
MI 0 6 5
MN 3 13 3
MO 1 10 4
MT 1 7 5
NC 0 12 3
ND 1 12 5
NE 1 11 5
NH 1 10 3
NJ 0 7 1
NM 3 13 5
NV 1 15 5
NY 3 9 4
OH 1 13 5
OK 1 5 5
OR 5 14 5
PA 1 13 4
RI 0 2 2
SC 0 1 2
SD 0 11 6
TN 1 13 4
TX 1 11 5
UT 1 9 3
VA 2 9 5
VT 1 12 4
WA 3 11 5
WI 1 11 5
WV 0 3 4
WY 1 2 4
Mean = 1.4
S.D. = 1.4
Mean = 9.3
S.D. = 3.5
Mean = 3.9
S.D. = 1.2

Oregon and Delaware scored consistently high across the three subscales. Idaho was boosted by its rider education subscale score (16), but scored lower in licensing (3). Nevada and New Mexico also reported strong features of their rider education programs (15 and 13, respectively) but scored lower on program administration (1 and 3, respectively). Apparently, the delivery of rider training in Nevada was not negatively affected by the organization of the program. South Dakota was the only State that scored the highest on one of the subscales (tying with Delaware at 6.0 for licensing practices) but was not in the highest tier for overall promising practices. At the other end of the distribution, South Carolina and Rhode Island scored equally low on all three subscales. Overall, these results suggest a fair amount of consistency across the three subscales in the way States meet various promising practices. States are likely either to engage highly in all three areas of promising practices or to engage little in all three.

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