Classroom instruction motivates children to participate in the Safe Routes to School (SR2S) program through fun activities that encourage them to walk and bike. The lessons teach students how their transportation choices affect their community, the environment, and their health. They also give students a better understanding of their streets and neighborhoods and ensure that they know basic traffic safety.
Safety Skills are Essential
While most parents teach their children some safety skills, it takes time and practice for a child to retain that information. Every school that encourages children to walk and bike must ensure that each child has knowledge of basic safety rules, can identify traffic signs and understands how to behave safely and responsibly. Older children should be taught bicycle skills including basic traffic laws, proper equipment, and how to control a bicycle.
Communication Method is Key
The method of communication with children is as important as the information itself. Teaching through hands-on experiences, including skill-building physical exercises, games that test their knowledge, and workbooks for practicing understanding, will increase retention and develop abilities that are real life skills. Bike Rodeos, Walk and Bike to School Days, and mapping exercises provide opportunities for children to try out their skills. Class projects will teach the health benefits of good exercise as well as the environmental improvements that occur when there are fewer cars on the road.
Schedule Time with Teachers
Teachers have a full plate of required lessons and need plenty of notice in order to make time in the classroom schedule for SR2S. Schedule your classroom time early in the school year and try to schedule the entire year at one time. Safety training and related lessons fit nicely into a Physical Education (P.E.) curriculum. If your school does not have a P.E. program then you can make the case that these lessons will help the school meet its P.E. requirements.
Engage Law Enforcement Assistance
Many law enforcement agencies have special programs that include traffic safety training for children. Check with your local police, sheriff, or highway patrol and see what they have to offer. There also are organizations that specialize in conducting Bicycle Rodeos in schools. They can bring an obstacle course onto campus that simulates traffic situations and provides an entertaining experience for the children.
Pedestrian Training (for first and second-graders)
When developing a safety curriculum it is important to identify what children should learn as a result of the training. Pedestrian training programs should ensure that students understand, and practice, basic pedestrian rules. There are many ways to teach safety skills. There are videos available that give children a fun introduction to traffic safety (see Resources). You should always follow a video with an active class discussion. A hands-on exercise will further strengthen the students skills and retention. Make the lessons fun and engaging by presenting the material as a game.
Basic Laws and Signs FOR Bicycling
Basic pedestrian lessons should include:
When you walk, run, inline skate, skateboard or ride a bike, stop at the curb or the edge of the street before you cross.
Look left, look right, and look left again, turning your head to see over your shoulder, before you step into the street to cross to the other side.
Be aware that cars may not stop even if you have the right-of-way.
Step into the street only if you do not see any moving cars.
Never go for a walk with a stranger. Only walk with someone who your parents say is okay.
Walk on the sidewalk or a walking path. When there is no sidewalk, always walk facing traffic.
Listen for the sound of car motors, car doors, sirens, and horns before you step into the street.
Never run into the street to catch a ball or chase a toy, a friend, or a pet.
Never run across the street; walk when crossing the street.
Do not cross in the middle of the street unless there is a crosswalk and signal or a crossing guard.
Cross at corners and use crosswalks whenever possible; always stay within the lines of the crosswalk.
Use intersections with signals and pedestrian buttons whenever possible.
Know what the different signs and signals mean and always follow them.
Be careful around parked cars; stop, look left, look right, and look left again before stepping out from between parked cars.
Early in the morning or in the evening and at night, wear reflective and/or light colored clothing, carry a light, and/or wear a flashing light.
Bicycle Safety Training
(for third, fourth, and fifth-graders)
Children love to ride their bikes. Cycling gives them a sense of freedom and independence and besides, its a lot of fun. Although each school has its own policy, usually schools dont allow children to bike to school on their own until the third grade. Bicycling is more complicated than walking and requires knowledge of a more sophisticated set of rules and skills. A bicycle safety curriculum should ensure that children have a comprehensive knowledge of traffic safety because, as bicyclists, students have the same responsibilities as drivers to obey traffic laws. Cyclists also should have the right equipment, including a snug-fitting helmet and the right size bike, in proper working order.
| The implications for EFFECTIVE
BRAKING are as follows:
Beginning bicyclists need to be given exercises that will help them learn to control their bicycles. Remember that childrens depth, distance and speed perception, as well as their eyesight and hearing, are not fully developed. They need explicit instructions on dealing with traffic, such as not to ride into the path of oncoming vehicles.
Bicycle Safety Lessons should include:
Wearing a helmet that fits properly and is correctly positioned
Riding in a smooth, straight and predictable manner
How to be in control of their bicycle at all times
How to scan the road by looking ahead, side to side and over the shoulder, to see from behind without swerving
Riding at a safe speed
How to stop quickly and remain in control
Traffic signs and signals
Right and left hand turn signals
Signaling to slow and stop
Proper bike fit
Bicycle mechanical safety checklist
Identifying and avoiding high-risk situations and behaviors
How to keep control of the bicycle when reacting to hazards
How to recognize and interpret communications from other road users and the importance of making eye contact
Bicycle theft prevention
Bicycle Rodeos are used to teach safety skills while giving the children a fun exercise. They are usually layed out with chalk, traffic cones, stop signs and sponges to designate areas or create obstacles. Sophisticated courses have props of cars and buildings to simulate a street environment.
|An excerpt from The Guide to Bicycle Rodeos
by John Williams and Dan Burden
One surprising thing that weve learned from the crash studies is this: while the kids involved in car/bike crashes were most often at fault, they generally knew the traffic law they violated. They violated them anyway because of competing needs (Got to get home or Mom will be mad) or faulty expectations (No one ever comes down that street why stop at the stop sign?). For this reason, expecting kids to obey traffic rules simply because we tell them to is unrealistic. The old rote learning programs that give dos and donts will not do the trick. The kids need to see first hand why rules help people get where they are going.
The objective of the Bicycle Safety Rodeo is to teach children the importance of seeing, being seen, and remaining in control at all times when riding a bicycle. This is achieved through a series of bike handling drills and traffic situation simulations. Begin each rodeo with an explanation of what students are expected to demonstrate.
We want to see that students:
Are aware of what is going on around them
Are maintaining their balance and are in control of their bikes
Are communicating with other road users through turn signals and eye contact
Eight different stations give students the opportunity to practice a variety of bike handling skills and procedures for operating a bike safely and legally while in traffic. Each station takes ten minutes to complete, when working with groups of about twelve children. The whole group instruction at the beginning of the rodeo will require a minimum of ten minutes.
The children are given a number and instructed to assemble on the black top with the Course Marshal who is holding a sign with their number. The Marshals will ask children to form a row facing the safety courses.
Always begin with a Helmet Fit, Bike Fit and ABC Quick Check (bike safety checkup). Wearing a well-fitted helmet and having the right-sized bike in good working order cannot be overemphasized.
Instruct the group to check their helmet fit. It must be snug and level with room for no more than two fingers between the straps and the chin. All Course Marshals will look to see that helmets are properly fitted. If a helmet or a bike is not fitting correctly or a bike is not working properly, the child must see a Course Marshal designated to assist with adjustments.
Have all students stand over their bikes and explain that they must be able to stand over the top tube with both feet on the ground. Model this with a bike.
Explain to the group that this next procedure must be followed every time you ride; its as easy to remember as your ABCs and its quick as well.
A is for air, check tire pressure.
B is for brakes, check your brakes.
C is for cranks, chain and cassette. Make sure the cranks are not loose, the pedals are attached tightly to the cranks, and the chain is on a ring up front and the cassette in the back.
Quick is for the quick releases on the wheels and the seat; make sure they are tight.
Check is for a slow, smooth start to make sure you are shifting properly. (Instruct them to do this when they start their first station.)
The Safety Stations
In the Safetyville Traffic Course you simulate simple street-riding situations, with an emphasis on:
Give specific instructions in the proper procedure for pulling out of a blocked driveway; stopping at the edge, looking left, then right, left again, signaling to the left, then if it is clear, pulling out into the street. Students move on to negotiate four intersections: two left-hand and two right-hand turns, repeating the full procedure at each intersection.
The role of extra Course Marshals (possibly played by children who are not participating in the rodeo) is to act as human stop signs at each intersection. They check for compliance with the proper procedure of stop, look left, right, left, signal, and proceed only of its clear. Human stop signs should model the procedure when necessary.
Prop cars, motorcycles, pedestrians, and other bikes (portrayed by additional Course Marshals) can move around the course, requiring that children make real decisions about how to react and proceed safely. All Marshals should talk to the riders, offering positive reinforcement and encouraging feedback.
The Slalom Course is an exercise in bike handling that is designed to challenge all ability levels while ensuring success for every rider. Instruct the riders that the chalk lines are drawn close enough to make staying within the lines difficult, but that traffic cones are placed far enough apart that any child should be able to navigate the course while remaining between the cones. The Course Marshal will monitor the distance between riders and their speed. Talk to the riders, offering positive and encouraging feedback. Replace cones when they get knocked over.
The Turtle Race is a balance exercise. Ask the riders if they find it harder to control their bikes at slower speeds. Most likely, theyll agree. Explain that this is a balance exercise. The last person across the finish line is the winner. Riders cannot put their foot down and must stay within their lane. Talk to the riders, offering positive reinforcement and encouraging feedback. Cheer the riders enthusiastically.
The Rock Dodge demonstrates the technique of flicking the front wheel to avoid a sudden obstacle, without swerving wildly. The course is laid out in a circular fashion. The sponges are arranged in a pattern that creates three narrow chutes. Instruct the students to warm up by riding the course and keeping both wheels inside of the sponges when they come to the chutes. After students have done this several times, place the three rock sponges in the center of each chute.
Tell students that this simulates a situation riders often encounter; a sudden appearance of obstacle in the riders path, but the rider must stay within a narrow area. Instruct them to steer away from the rock at the last moment, which will cause them to lean in the opposite direction. Counter this by over-steering in the opposite direction.
The Quick Turn practices the need to make a quick decision to execute a sharp turn. Instruct the riders to line up and ride through the marked chute toward them, just as the rider reaches the end of the chute, the Course Marshal will direct each rider to turn right or left. Instruct them to ride out to the marker cone and circle back to the line and repeat the drill. Encourage them to build up speed as they become comfortable with the activity.
The Chaos Corner demonstrates the need for traffic rules, signals and signage. Designate an area by placing four tall safety cones, which the riders must remain within. The Marshal will allow riders to enter one at a time, the object being to ride chaotically within the confined area without touching another rider. If the Marshal sees riders making contact, they must be removed. Stop the traffic after about 6 or 7 minutes and ask the riders what rules would make the situation less chaotic. Try their ideas. At the end of the station, ask the riders if the new rules helped.
The Quick Stop teaches the ability to brake suddenly and maintain control while stopping quickly. Teach the riders to shift their weight back when braking. By transferring their weight to the rear wheel, the rider avoids going over the handlebar, increases the braking power of the rear wheel, and stabilizes the stop. The course involves several lanes of riders taking off at once, with the Marshal positioned near the start. Once the riders have gone past them a short way, the Marshal blows a whistle, signaling the riders to stop immediately. The object is to stop fast, remaining within the lane, even if it results in a skid.
This exercise demonstrates the need to be able to respond quickly and maintain control while braking. The Marshal will monitor riders ability to make a sudden stop without veering from their path. Have the riders resume and encourage them to build up speed, then randomly blow the whistle again. Do this several more times as the riders proceed down the lane.
Once everybody has had at least one turn, the Marshal will demonstrate shifting your weight back while braking. Explain that this move will make stopping quickly easier and safer because it keeps you from going over the front of the bike, and putting weight on the rear wheel makes it stop faster.
The Figure Eight course practices bike handling while challenging riders to use their peripheral vision to adjust their speed. The layout consists of two or more circles drawn on the pavement and outlined with small safety cones. The Marshal will allow each child to ride the course as a warm up. The Marshal will then feed the riders onto the course one at a time, until all the students are on the course at once. Instruct them that they must avoid collisions at each intersection and avoid running into the rider ahead of them. The Marshal will monitor speed and distance between riders.
The Nevada State Education Office of Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety provides instructor training for Bicycle Rodeos that includes classroom and field instruction. Classroom time includes direct instruction, discussion, viewing a variety of instructional videos, and a survey of other resources. The course includes a resource binder that contains everything covered in the class, which is an invaluable tool for any instructor.
Instructors are taught the rules of safe behavior and the laws that apply to bicyclists and to automobiles while interacting with bikes. They learn how to conduct a bike fit, safety check, and helmet fit. The course includes the fundamentals of child development, which affects the way children behave in traffic and determines how children learn.
In the field portion, the instructors have an opportunity to set up several bike rodeo drills and assume the role of student in practicing the maneuvers. This is an excellent hands-on experience that allows instructors the chance to work with a perfected rodeo set-up. The League of American Bicyclists also offers bicycle safety training courses.
Ideas for Safety Lessons
Pretests and safety pledges
Start by evaluating your students current knowledge of safety skills. This will help you to develop a curriculum that is both informative and challenging. Have your students and their parents sign a safety pledge to obey traffic safety laws. This ensures that the student and the parent understand the rules and have made a commitment to abide by those rules (see Resources for examples)
This lesson introduces children to basic safety skills in preparation for a Walk and Bike to School Day by making signs and banners for the event. Students are asked to demonstrate their knowledge of the basics of safe walking (for first and second graders) and bicycling (for third through fifth graders) and will specifically address dangerous situations such as darting out from between parked cars. This is an opportunity for the teacher to informally assess the level of awareness children have for the traffic situations that are statistically most dangerous.
Explain that you will be making safety signs to carry on Walk and Bike to School Day (students can make signs to mount on their bikes) and signs to place at staging areas and in front of school.
Your school can decide whether to allow children to take the signs home or collect them and distribute them at staging areas. We have found that collecting the signs at the end of the event and using them again at future Walk and Bike to School days works best.
Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Quiz Show
In this activity, students play a game that allows them to practice and develop bicycle and pedestrian safety knowledge. The game is based on the television quiz show, Jeopardy. This activity can be elaborate or simple. The simplest way is to take a piece of paper and write the point value (10, 20, 30 or 40 points) on one side and the question on the other. Use different colored paper for each category. Pin the columns of questions to a bulletin board or tape them to a wall.
Break up the class into two teams. Then have the first team pick a category and point value, such as Rules of the Road for 20 points. Read the question and ask the team to give an answer. This lesson is discussion based. Teachers should determine the number of answers a team may give for each question. It is important to elicit the answer from the students and not to give them the answers. Provide hints and prompts, and encourage them to work as a team. Be sure to discuss the reasons behind the answers.
When the team has given the correct answer, ask the other team to choose the next question. This game can be played competitively, with a prize or prizes given to the winning team. It can also be done without competition, declaring everyone a winner for knowing his or her safety rules.
Sample categories and questions:
Q: What side of the street should you walk on when there is no sidewalk?
A: You should walk facing oncoming cars (against traffic).
Why It is easier for the drivers to see us.
Q: What are the signals for turning right, turning left and slowing down or stopping?
A: Left arm up at a right angle for turning right, straight out to turn left and down at the right angle to slow and/or stop.
Why Bicyclists, like drivers, need to alert other users of the road when they will be making a change.
Q: True or false: You dont have to stop at a stop sign if you are on a bike and there are no vehicles coming.
Why Bicyclists must obey the same rules as drivers. Even though you dont see a vehicle, that doesnt mean that one wont appear.
Q: What is the largest single cause of air pollution in the United States?
A: Motor vehicle use is now generally recognized as the source of more air pollution than any other single human activity.
Why Oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and particulate matters are just a few of the noxious pollutants emitted by cars.
Talk to the children about traffic safety. Give them examples of poor driving habits, such as speeding, not stopping at stop signs, or not yielding to pedestrians. Give children Traffic Violation ticket forms and have them sit in front of the school during morning drop-off or afternoon pick-up. This exercise can also be done while children are walking to school.
Tell students to record traffic violations on their tickets with the license number, the time of day, and the nature of the violation. Hold another classroom discussion to talk about the violations and how they might have been avoided. Discuss where to place posters and when to send letters to parents asking them to drive more carefully.
Math and Social Science
This is a simple exercise that can be performed by students as young as the second grade. The purpose is to determine how children currently get to school. Repeat this exercise at the end of the school year. Use the same format each time or it will be impossible to accurately compare the results. For best results, conduct these surveys during an entire week and then average the results. This exercise should be used as part of collecting baseline information on school travel modes for your Safe Routes to School teams.
Have students go to each class and ask students how they got to school that day through a raise of hands. All answers should be marked down on the Student Survey School Travel Form (see Resources).
Student Surveys Middle and High School
These surveys will discover more than simply how children get to school. The purpose of this survey is to measure attitudes and feelings. Have students create a survey that asks how they get to and from school. Help the students develop further questions about their attitudes toward driving, biking, walking and transit. What influences their choices? Do they feel that biking is only for kids? Do they think riding in a car makes them more mature? Are they aware of the environmental consequences of their choices? Use a computer database to collect the information. Publish the results in a newsletter.
This exercise should be used as part of the Safe Routes to School teams efforts to gather initial baseline data on student behavior. It should be done at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Be sure to use the same format each time; otherwise, it will be impossible to effectively compare the results. You will get more accurate reports if you do this over several days and then take an average of all the days. The purpose is to calculate the number of cars dropping off children at school. You should:
Calculating Miles Per Gallon Adapted from Smart
Tripper, Kitsap County, Washington
Students calculate gas mileage and auto emissions and compare the miles per gallon (MPG) for different vehicles. This figure has a significant impact on the amount of air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions produced by a vehicle. Using the following steps, help your students calculate the gas mileage of their familys car:
Vehicle Travel Diary Developed by David Engwicht of
This family activity is done over the course of a week. Ask your students to keep track of their familys automobile trips. A trip is measured from one point A to point B. If the children are driven to school on the way to work, the first trip is from home to the school. The second trip is from the school to the workplace. If you go shopping on the way home from work, the first trip is from the workplace to where you shop. The second trip is from the shop to your home. Create a chart that allows children to record the date of the trip, the origin, destination and miles for each trip. At the end of the week, count the number of trips that were made. Count the number of miles that were driven. Have a class discussion on alternatives to driving. Can any of these trips be made by transit, walking, biking, or carpooling?
Mapping My Route to School
In this activity, students will create a map of their route to school and indicate how they travel to school. It is best to coordinate this activity with the Safe Routes to School Task Force mapping process. As an in-class activity it is useful to have a local area map. This can be copied to a transparency for use with an overhead projector. Children can do this in class or take the activity home. Enlarge a section of a local map, with the school at the center, including the neighborhoods around the school for at least a two-mile radius. Transfer this to an overhead, if any in-class instructions are required. Make copies of the handout with the map on one side.
Ask the class how most people usually get to school:
Other ideas: Using computers
Horndean Community School in Hampshire, England, developed a geography/information technology class for 13-14 year olds. Students used computers to map the local area, with the help of software supplied by the county. They identified danger points on the way to school, looked at the alternatives and experimented with changes in road design. Through the work, they were able to put transportation issues into a local context, examine problems and come up with solutions.
Treasure Hunt First created by Hawthorne Elementary
School in British Columbia
This exercise teaches children traffic safety signs and helps them to get to know their neighborhood better. Design a one-page list of items and objects that children can look for on their way to school. Include all street signs, such as stop and yield signs, bike route signs, etc. Also include fun items, such as an oak tree, a black dog, or a house with a front porch. The list also can ask such questions as, where is the bus stop closest to your home? These are the treasures that the children will hunt for. Steps:
Walk and Bike Across America Initiated by the Way to Go program in British Columbia
The purpose is to encourage children to walk and bike while taking them on a journey across the country. Steps:
If you are also encouraging busing and carpooling, include those modes in this exercise. It is important to remember that children in vehicles can travel far more miles than those walking and biking. To keep the exercise fair to all children, instead of actual miles for motor vehicle trips, add one bonus mile for every trip made by carpool or bus and add it to the total class miles.
Have students write a poem or story involving a journey to school. Have them describe the things they see along the way, how it feels to be walking and biking. Have them discuss the safety hazards they may encounter along the way. How could their walk be more pleasant?
Assign children to speak with their grandparents (or parents) about their childhood experiences getting to school. Have them draw a picture and write a story about what they learned. Tell them to ask their grandparents how long it took them and what the conditions were like. Have the children write a paragraph comparing how they get to school now with how their grandparents got to school.
A History of Transportation
How have people traveled over the ages? This lesson gives children a glimpse of the many different choices that are available to them. Steps:
Transportation and Land Use
In Marin County, California, instructors gave students a local history lesson about the countys original plan to construct a freeway around Mount Tamalpais and down the coast, and to widen a two-lane road into a major thoroughfare. The plan was defeated in the 1960s by conservationists, environmentalists, scientists and ordinary peopleteachers, parents and even children who fought to preserve Mt. Tamalpais, the coastline, the Point Reyes National Seashore, and rural Marin County.
In any community you can find examples of people joining forces to limit development in favor of preserving an area that is valuable as open space. Discuss the successful efforts of many urban centers to reject highways and preserve light rail, such as San Francisco, New Orleans, and Portland. Find a local example of this kind of successful grassroots effort or look to such high profile national projects as the proposed plan to limit auto use in the Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park. Locate pictures of the area and enlarge them for a display.
Traffic pollution survey
Choose two locations. One should be on a busy street; the other as far from a busy street as possible. Students should find either a holly, bay or evergreen tree as long as its the same species throughout the experiment and has a sturdy leaf structure. At each location they should:
Global Warming (for fifth-graders and above)
This exercise gives students an opportunity to experience the phenomenon of global warming. Clear plastic bottles containing soil and water represent the earth and our atmosphere. The heat lamps replicate the heat of the sun. Students ventilate half of the bottles, allowing the heat to escape, the way heat radiated from Earth before an insulating layer of pollution formed in the atmosphere. The other half of the bottles are left unventilated, demonstrating the way heat is now trapped in our environment, as evidenced by the condensation of moisture in the bottle. Moisture will not condense in the ventilated bottle.
For a class of 24 students, six stations are suggested. Each station (including a demonstration station for the teacher) needs:
Plastic container with about two cups of potting soil
Another plastic container with about two cups of water
One plastic bottle (two liter)
One small bucket or other device to stand the plastic bottle in (in order to catch excess dirt)
A tarp or newspapers on the floor
One inch square piece of aluminum foil
Clipboard, paper and pencil
Every other station will require a utility-knife
One heavy-duty extension cord
One surge protected power strip
Wide masking tape
Have students work as teams of scientists. They should take turns with responsibilities. Steps:
Older children should be familiar with public transit facilities in their region. While Safe Routes to School primarily focuses on walking and biking, adding transit options increases the distance a student can travel, especially when combining bicycling with transit. These exercises give students an opportunity to experience public transportation.
Transit Field Trip
For Middle and High School students (may be appropriate for fifth-graders)
This activity gives the students an opportunity to learn about public transit. Organize a field trip using public transit. Steps:
If your city has bicycle access to transit, create a trip combining bicycle and transit.
Transit to Careers
A lesson for Middle and High School students
This activity gives students an opportunity to learn about public transit while researching career opportunities. Steps:
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