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Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the authors recommend that the following activities to remove the barriers to intervention and motivate family members and friends to intervene in driving decisions of at–risk older drivers be considered.

Develop a comprehensive, cohesive, and consistent social marketing campaign that achieves similar changes in national behavior as have the MADD and Seat Belt campaigns:

Establish and implement federal and state policies and regulations mandating reporting and procedures for retesting

Establish at least one driving assessment clinic in regional metropolitan and suburban areas

Publicize classes to improve driving skills

Enlist the help of insurance companies as gatekeepers

Improve current alternative transportation to meet the needs of those who have stopped driving

Develop and implement mobility training programs to help the elderly learn to use alternative transportation services

Develop national policies and provide sufficient funding to support local, customer–focused, alternative transportation services

Give authority figures (healthcare community; law enforcement personnel; DMV) the information and tools to make them responsive to families who need assistance through: pamphlets and other reference materials that list signs of driving impairment; reference materials to help older drivers plan for a change in mobility; and a pamphlet listing costs and benefits of driving versus alternatives to driving

Establish transportation planning and counseling along with retirement planning programs

Encourage social service agencies to establish support groups for older drivers, families, and friends

Conduct additional research related to family and friends intervening to increase knowledge about interventions and test social marketing campaign strategies and materials