Guide for Interfacility Patient Transfer, NHTSA

Appendix B:

References and Resources for IFT

Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act

Health Law Resource Center
EMS & Helicopter Issues
www.medlaw.com/ems.htm

American College of Emergency Physicians
EMTALA – Main Points
http://www.acep.org/webportal/PracticeResources/issues/emtala/default.htm

Appropriate Interhospital Patient Transfer
http://www.acep.org/webportal/PracticeResources/issues/emtala/default.htm

Annals of Emergency Medicine
The EMTALA Paradox (2002)
http://www.annemergmed.com/issues#2002

eMedicine
COBRA Laws
www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic737.htm

Emergency Nurses Association
EMTALA Information (1998 – 2004)
www.ena.org/government/emtala/

Air Medical Physicians Association
Medical Condition List and Appropriate Use of Air Medical Conditions (2002)
http://www.ampa.org/component/option,com_docman/task,cat_view/gid,23/Itemid,42/

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
Appendix V of the State Operations Manual. Interpretive Guidelines — Responsibilities of Medicare Participating Hospitals in Emergency Cases.
http://www.cms.hhs.gov/EMTALA/

U.S. General Accountability Office
EMTALA Implementation and Enforcement
www.gao.gov/new.items/d01747.pdf

Examples of Federal Regulations

Federal Aviation Administration
Air medical services operate predominantly under two distinct parts of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), formerly known as the Federal Aviation Regulations: CFR Part 91 and Part 135.

Part 91 regulates flight operations for aircraft flying within U.S. airspace
ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=dd3aa7b9f3da5c3af094830596d3790b&rgn=
div5&view=text&node=14:2.0.1.3.10&idno=14

Part 135 provides specific regulations for commuter and on demand air carriers, including air ambulances
ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=dd3aa7b9f3da5c3af094830596d3790b&rgn=
div5&view=text&node=14:2.0.1.3.23&idno=14

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

HIPAA.org
CMS has prepared a checklist to help you get started.
www.hipaa.com/

American Medical Association
HIPAA
www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/4234.html

American College of Emergency Physicians
HIPAA Compliance Information (Updated 2005)
http://www.acep.org/webportal/PracticeResources/issues/admin/HIPAAComplianceInformation.html

Facts about Medical Liability Insurance Crisis
http://www.acep.org/webportal/PracticeResources/issues/medliab/default.html

Office for the Advancement of TeleHealth
Final HIPAA Privacy Rules (2001)
telehealth.hrsa.gov/pubs/hipaa.htm

Liability

American College of Emergency Physicians
Medical Professional Liability Insurance (2004)
www.acep.org/NR/rdonlyres/DD94E243-339F-4A02-983D-7563D42BCE74/0/MPLIpaperApril04.pdf

Facts about Medical Liability Insurance Crisis
www.acep.org/webportal/PatientsConsumers/HealthSubjectsByTopic/MedicalLiabily/correctrhtoric.htm

Emergency Nurses Association Position Statement
Medical Professional Liability Insurance: Malpractice Crisis (2003)
www.ena.org/about/position

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Special Update on Medical Liability Crisis (2002)
aspe.os.dhhs.gov/daltcp/reports/mlupd1.htm

National Council of State Legislatures
State Medical Liabilities Law Table (2002)
http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/medmalncsl.htm

LAW.com
Dictionary of Legal Terms
dictionary.law.com/

Position Statements

American Academy of Pediatrics
Guidelines for Air and Ground Transport of Neonatal and Pediatric Patients 2nd Edition (1999)
www.aap.org/bst/showdetl.cfm?&DID=15&Product_ID=912

American College of Emergency Physicians
Interfacility Transportation of the Critical Care Patient and Its Medical Direction (1999)
http://www.acep.org/webportal/PracticeResources/PolicyStatements/

Professional Liability Insurance for EMS Medical Control Activities (1999)
www.acep.org/webportal/PracticeResources/PolicyStatements/
EMS/ProfessionalLiabilityInsuranceforEMSMedicalControlActivities.htm

American College of Surgeons/Committee on Trauma
Interfacility Transfer of Injured Patients: Guidelines for Rural Communities (2002)
https://web2.facs.org/timssnet464/acspub/frontpage.cfm?product_class=trauma

Air Medical Physicians Association
Medical Direction and Medical Control of Air Medical Services (2002) http://www.ampa.org/component/option,com_docman/task,cat_view/gid,23/Itemid,42/

Air and Surface Transportation Nurses Association
Staffing of Critical Care Air Medical Transport Services (2001)
www.astna.org/Position-papers/staffing.htm

Association of Air Medical Services
Appropriate use of Critical Care Ground Transport Services (2005)
www.aams.org/publications.html

Emergency Nurses Association
Care of the Critically Ill or Injured Patient During Interfacility Transfer (2002)
http://www.ena.org/about/position/

National Association of EMS Physicians
Medical Direction of Interfacility
Transports (2000)
Medical Direction for Air Medical Transport Programs (2002)
Physician Medical Direction in EMS (1997)
(Table of contents:)
www.naemsp.org/Position%20Papers/Contents.html

Society for Critical Care Medicine
Guidelines for the Intra and Interfacility Transport of Critically Ill Patients. (2004).
http://www.sccm.org/professional_resources/guidelines/table_of_contents/index.asp

Pediatric Emergency Care

The state of pediatric interfacility transport: Consensus of the Second National Pediatric and Neonatal Interfacility Transport Medicine Leadership Conference (2002)
www.pec-online.com/pt/re/pec/abstract.00006565-200202000-00013.htm;jsessionid=B11uIWoslDR06awVX8h7HDSN8AfknBCJPlyDfuLd1W3MRzwodSog!
368654479!-949856031!9001!-1?index=1&results=1&count=10&searchid=1&nav=search

References of General Interest

Air and Surface Transportation Nurses Association
Standards for Critical Care and Specialty Ground Transport
Standards for Critical Care and Specialty Fixed-Wing Transport
Standards for Critical Care and Specialty Rotor-Wing Transport
www.astna.org/pubs.html

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Navigating the Medicare Web Site
www.medscape.com/viewarticle/ 494892?src=mp

Definitions of Ambulance Services. Program Memorandum. Transmittal AB-02-130
www.cms.hhs.gov/manuals/pm_trans/ab02130.pdf

Request for Medicare Payment – Ambulance.
CMS Form 1491.
www.cms.hhs.gov/providers/edi/cms1491.pdf

Commission on Accreditation of Ambulance Services
Accreditation Standards (2004)
www.caas.org/index1.html

Emergency Medical Services for Children
Trauma Triage, Transfer, and Transport Guidelines (2002)
http://www.ems-c.org/search/framesearch.htm
(Enter title into Title Search field.)

Emergency Nurses Association
Certification for Ground Transport Nurses
http://www.ena.org/bcen/ctrn/

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Pub. 100-02. Chapter 10. Ambulance Services.
http://www.cms.hhs.gov/center/ambulance.asp

Request for Medicare Payment Ambulance.
CMS Form 1491.
http://www.cms.hhs.gov/center/ambulance.asp

Institute of Medicine
Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program, (1990), M.J. Field and K.N. Lohr (editors) Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Page 38.
books.nap.edu/catalog/1626.html

The Future of Public Health. (1988). Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health. Division of Health Care Services. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press.
http://www.nap.edu/books/0309038308/html

Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems
Interhospital Transfer Guidelines Manual (2002)
www.miemss.org/Interhospital.pdf

Minnesota Department of Health, Community Health Division
Public Health Core Functions, Essential Services, and Goals
www.health.state.mn.us/divs/chs/pdf/gdlinebkgrd1.pdf#search=’three%20
core%20functions%20of%20public%20health

National Rural Health Association
Rural and Frontier Emergency Medical Services Agenda for the Future (2004)
www.nrharural.org/groups/sub/EMS.html

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Emergency Medical Services Agenda for the Future
www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ems/agenda/emsman.html

Implementation Guide
www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ems/agenda/index.html

Guide for Preparing Medical Directors
www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/ems/2001GuideMedical.pdf

National EMS Research Agenda
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/site/nhtsa/menuitem.2a0771e91315babbbf30811060008a0c/;jsessionid=
EMyPS4zjvEasDAYBAlHs1Qm9ncn71vGM2plOk6RHZGrZD1YKNjuK!28012360?quickLinksSelect=
%2Fportal%2Fsite%2Fnhtsa%2Fmenuitem.2a0771e91315babbbf308

NEMSIS
www.nemsis.org/

University of Maryland Baltimore County
Critical Care Emergency Medical Transport Program
http://ehs.umbc.edu/CE/CCEMT-P/index.html

United States Small Business Administration
Elements of a Business Plan
http://www.sba.gov/starting_business/index.html