Definition of EMS for this Document
Federal Agencies Can Help Advance EMS Research
Executive Summary
History of EMS Research

The Present State of EMS Research
Overcoming the Barriers to EMS Research
Appendix A: The National EMS Research Agenda Writing Team
Appendix B: Organizations Invited to Participate in the National Review Team
Appendix C: Ethical Standards and IRB Requirements
Appendix D Inclusion Of Women And Minorities In Research Study Populations Involving Human Subjects
Inclusion Of Children As Participants In Research Involving Human Subjects
Appendix E: Bibliographic List of Internet Links
Appendix F: Published EMS Randomized Clinical Trials

History of EMS Research

Modern EMS systems developed following the 1966 publication of a National Academy of Sciences paper entitled Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society29 and the work of J.F. Pantridge extending emergency cardiac care to the prehospital setting in the United Kingdom.30 Dr. Pantridge's program in Northern Ireland inspired the pioneering efforts of physicians such as Eugene Nagel in Miami and Leonard Cobb in Seattle to extend emergency cardiac care to the patient's home.31,32