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Research & Evaluation
Expanding the Seat Belt Program Strategies Toolbox: A Starter Kit for Trying New Program Ideas (DOT HS 812 341)
Researchers examined behavioral-change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising as possible approaches to increase seat belt use. This report is the result, a "starter kit" of ideas of varying levels of readiness so occupant protection programmers can use in seat belt programming across the country. Five strategies include high school service-learning programs, hospital discharge programs, targeted online advertising, online learning and e-learning, and product/message placement.
More Cops More Stops: Evaluation of a Combined HVE Program in Oklahoma and Tennessee (DOT HS 812 337)
This report evaluates the “More Cops More Stops” (MCMS) combined enforcement program in Oklahoma and Tennessee, letting the traffic safety community make better informed programming decisions. This evaluation provides little evidence to support the continued use of MCMS to enhance the effect of CIOT and DSOGPO.
The Effect of High Visibility Enforcement on Driver Compliance with Pedestrian Right-of-Way Laws: Four-Year Follow-Up (DOT HS 812 364)
This study is a follow-up to a previous study entitled High Visibility Enforcement on Driver Compliance with Pedestrian Right-of-Way Laws. The objective was to determine the extent to which the observed increases in driver yielding obtained in the previous study persisted over a follow-up period of nearly four years after the high visibility enforcement intervention program ended.
2013-2014 National Roadside Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers: Alcohol Results (DOT HS 812 362)
This is 1 of 3 reports on our 2013-2104 National Roadside Survey – this report focuses on the Alcohol Results. The results showed a continuing reduction in alcohol-positive drivers on weekend nights – to 8.3% during our study. The results were announced during an event in early 2015.
- Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk: A Case-Control Study (DOT HS 812 355) This study used a “case-control” design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both obtaining 10,221 breath samples, 9,285 oral fluid samples, and 1,764 blood samples from more than 3,000 crash drivers and 6,000 control drivers. Crash risk estimates for alcohol indicated drivers with BrACs of .08 g/210L is 3.98 times that of drivers with no alcohol.
Medical Review Practices For Driver Licensing Volume 1: A Case Study of Guidelines and Processes in Seven U.S. States (DOT HS 812 331)
This is the first of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how they fulfilled the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically at-risk drivers, documenting strengths and weaknesses of a variety of approaches. This report presents the methods used to group the diverse medical review practices across the 51 driver licensing agencies into four broad medical review structures, describes selection of States for case study, and identifies strengths and weaknesses associated with each of the four medical review structures. The seven States were Maine, North Carolina, Texas, Wisconsin, Ohio, Washington, and Oregon.
Evaluation of a Rural Seat Belt Demonstration Program in Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee (DOT HS 812 328)
Three southeastern States initiated high-visibility enforcement campaigns to address lower seat belt use in their rural areas than in non-rural areas. Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee conducted four waves of intensified enforcement and media from November 2008 to May 2010. The May campaigns were conducted just prior to the national Click It or Ticket campaigns. Combining activity, awareness and usage data from all three States, there was a significant positive correlation between media expenditures and awareness of rural seat belt messages. Two awareness indices correlated highly with usage and achieved statistical significance: awareness of rural seat belt messages and perceived risk of a ticket for not buckling up. While the significant correlations between awareness measures and belt usage suggest that the message got through to drivers, comparison of changes in belt use in the RDP versus the control areas produced mixed results. Seat belt usage increased significantly in the targeted rural areas of all three States, but it also increased at about the same rate in the control areas in two of the State
Video and Non-Video Feedback Interventions for Teen Drivers (DOT HS 812 291)
In-vehicle feedback technologies help parents teach their adolescent drivers. While feedback technologies have been shown to reduce some risky driving behavior, teens and parents’ privacy concerns deter some families from using them, especially technologies that include video. This study evaluated two similar technology-based systems, one with and one without video, to determine how much they reduced unsafe driving behavior in newly licensed teen drivers.
Marijuana, Other Drugs, and Alcohol Use by Drivers in Washington State (DOT HS 812 299)
In Washington State legal sale of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs including marijuana on Washington’s roads. Data was collected in three waves, before implementation of legal sales, about 6 months after implementation, and one year after implementation. Of almost 2,500 participants, 14.6 percent of drivers, 19.4 percent of drivers, and 21.8 percent of drivers were THC-positive in Waves 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
- Appendices (DOT HS 812 299A) Appendices for "Marijuana, Other Drugs, and Alcohol Use by Drivers in Washington State" report above (DOT HS 812 299)
2013–2014 National Roadside Study of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers - Methodology (DOT HS 812 294)
This report describes the methodology for the National Roadside Study (NRS), a national field study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol-, drug-, and alcohol-plus-drug-involved driving primarily among nighttime weekend drivers, but also daytime Friday drivers.
Functional Outcomes for Older Adults Injured in a Crash (DOT HS 809 811)
This report explores health and quality-of-life impacts of crashes among older (65+) and middle-aged (40-55) occupants. Analyses indicated the injured people had long-term health decrements following the crashes, and that older and middle-aged injured occupants showed continuing health decrements approximately 15 months following the crashes. Although both groups showed similar physical effects, middle-aged people showed greater quality-of-life decrements. These findings demonstrate the long-term implications of injury crashes and therefore highlight the need for crash avoidance and mitigation countermeasures.
Survey of DWI Courts (DOT HS 812 283)
NHTSA conducted a web-based survey of DWI Courts and DWI/Drug Courts (court programs that handle both DWI and drug offenders) in April/May 2015 in order to obtain detailed information on how DWI Courts were operating. NHTSA conducted the survey in collaboration with the National Center for DWI Courts, who alerted State Drug Court Coordinators to the survey, supported NHTSA webinars that described the survey, and provided NHTSA with contact information for the court programs. A total of 156 courts responded to the survey from a contact list of 473.
Evaluation of Kansas and Missouri Rural Seat Belt Demos (DOT HS 812 268)
Research has shown that seat belt use is lower in rural areas of the United States, which may be one reason fatalities are higher in these areas than in urban area. NHTSA sponsored two State-level demonstration projects intended to increase seat belt use in rural areas of Kansas and Missouri. During the study, Kansas and Missouri had secondary seat belt laws. Kansas used multiple media and enforcement waves, and Missouri employed a month-long media and enforcement campaign. Evaluations demonstrated increases in seat belt usage in many of the rural counties participating in the project, but some counties showed no change or even a decrease in seat belt use. Kansas showed an overall increase in seat belt use, from 61 to 70 percent use after the second intervention. Missouri showed increases in belt use in some of the 10 counties, though offset by decreases or no change in the other counties. Results support the conclusion that supplemental efforts of the demonstration projects produced positive results in the target counties and also benefited the total occupant protection programs in the State.
Advancing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety: A Primer for Highway Safety Professionals (DOT HS 812 258)
This primer for highway safety professionals is a reference for integrated and improved pedestrian and bicycle safety, summarizing the most promising infrastructure and behavioral programs addressing specific safety problems and highlighting how to implement these approaches. It identifies opportunities for agency collaboration and funding, and offers real-world examples of how States and local jurisdictions address pedestrian and bicycle issues. It includes descriptions of key concepts and definitions of common terms and acronyms used in pedestrian and bicycle safety issues.
System Analysis of Automated Speed Enforcement Implementation (DOT HS 812 257)
This survey of U.S. jurisdictions with Automated Speed Enforcement (ASE) programs examined protocols and practices in ASE deployment and implementation as well as the alignment of the programs with NHTSA guidelines. Differences between older and newer ASE programs were related to the enabling legislation and technology used. Speed management plans are important components of speed enforcement. Of the agencies responding to the survey, 53% had no plan for reducing speeding, while 34% had a plan, and 11% did not know if they had one. ASE program alignment with the NHTSA guidelines varied. Most agencies (63%) were unaware of the ASE guidelines prior to participating in the study.
Effect of Electronic Device Use on Pedestrian Safety: A Literature Review (DOT HS 812 256)
This literature review summarizes pedestrian distraction, driver distraction, and pedestrian-vehicle interactions. The findings further divide into subsections on study methodologies such as naturalistic observations, simulation, laboratory, or crash database analysis. A few studies investigate electronic device use by pedestrians and drivers and the effect on pedestrian safety, although with fewer naturalistic observation studies. Most previous studies focus primarily on cell phone use, but the discussion regarding other types of electronic devices is missing. The review illustrates the need to conduct naturalistic observations of the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian distraction and safety.
Motivations for Speeding – Additional Data Analysis (DOT HS 812 255)
This study examined naturalistic driving data from 164 drivers. It defined speeding in terms of speeding episodes and examined the influence of situational factors on different types of speeding. Analyses identified several types of speeding: Speeding that occurs around speed-zone transitions, incidental speeding, casual speeding, cruising speeding, and aggressive speeding. Analyses also identified four driver types: Unintentional Speeders, Situational Speeders, Typical Speeders, and Deliberate Speeders. The types of speeding and driver types identified occurred across all demographic groups. Findings on the general riskiness of different types of speeding and location-specific characteristics and driving environment effects on speeding are reported.
Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of the Risk Awareness and Perception Training Program for Novice Teen Drivers (DOT HS 812 235)
This project evaluated the impact of the Risk Awareness and Perception Training (RAPT) program on young driver crashes and traffic violations. A total of 5,251 young drivers 16 to 18 years old were recruited after passing on-road driving exams at six California DMV licensing offices. They were assigned to a group who completed the RAPT program or a comparison group who received pre-tests but did not receive any training. Their crash and violation records were tracked for 12 months post-licensure. Analyses showed substantial improvements in trainee performance. Crash analyses did not show an overall main effect for treatment, but there was a significant treatment by sex interaction effect. Analyses were then conducted for males and females separately to explore this interaction. The results showed a significant treatment effect for males but not for females. RAPT-trained males showed an approximately 23.7% lower crash rate relative to the male comparison group. For females, the RAPT group had an estimated 10.7% higher crash rate than the comparison group, but this increase was not statistically significant.
Automated Feedback to Foster Safe Driving in Young Drivers: Phase 2 (DOT HS 812 230)
This project evaluated the effect of accelerator pedal feedback to reduce speeding over the posted speed limit. GPS coordinates and speed limits were linked to a mechanical device that introduced feedback to the accelerator pedal when drivers exceeded speed limits. The feedback could be overridden by pressing harder on the accelerator pedal. In addition to measuring the effect of the technology on speeding, the researchers also measured driver acceptance of and mental workload experienced from the system. Results showed the pedal feedback led to less speeding and somewhat increased driver workload. Driver acceptance of the technology was mixed.
Clinician's Guide to Assessing and Counseling Older Drivers, 3rd Edition (DOT HS 812 228)
The American Geriatrics Society prepared this guide in cooperation with NHTSA to help healthcare professionals prevent motor vehicle crashes and injury to older adults. The guide assists clinicians in assessing older drivers at risk for crashes and counseling older drivers to help enhance their driving safety. Resources for easing the transition to driving retirement when necessary are also available.
School Start Times and Teenage Driver Motor Vehicle Crashes
This project conducted an in-depth longitudinal analysis of the relationship between changes in school start times and teen crashes. An intervention time series analysis was applied to data collected from two jurisdictions that changed to substantially later high school start times, Forsyth County, North Carolina, and Fayette County, Kentucky. Surrounding counties with no changes in school start times were included as controls. The study concluded that there was moderate evidence that the change in school start times in Forsyth County had a beneficial effect in reducing teen crashes, but there was no corresponding evidence for Fayette County.
Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasures Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, Eighth Edition, 2015 (DOT HS 812 202)
This 8th edition of Countermeasures That Work is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: Alcohol- and Drug-Impaired Driving; Seat Belts and Child Restraints; Speeding and Speed Management; Distracted and Drowsy Driving; Motorcycle Safety; Young Drivers; Older Drivers; Pedestrians; and Bicycles. The guide describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.
Meta-Analysis of Graduated Driver Licensing Laws (DOT HS 812 211)
This study assesses the effectiveness of graduated driver licensing programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001. The sample of 14 selected studies represented 13 different States, and three represented GDL programs across most or all U.S. States. Results showed that GDL programs were associated with reductions in traffic crashes of 16 percent for 16-year-olds and 11 percent for 17-year-olds, but no reliable changes in crash outcomes for 18- or 19-year-olds. A reasonable strategy for any State considering passage of a GDL law might involve listing the full range of provisions applicable to that State.
Evaluation of State Ignition Interlock Programs:Interlock Use Analyses From 28 States, 2006–2011
In 2010 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and NHTSA joined to evaluate ignition interlock programs in selected States to provide information and best practices to States for ignition interlock programs. The project aimed to determine the following: how States can increase interlock use among DWI offenders who are required or eligible to install one; which changes in ignition interlock programs led to increases in ignition interlock use, identification of key features of ignition interlock programs, and which key program features were related to higher ignition interlock use rates.
Comparative Study and Evaluation of SCRAM Use, Recidivism Rates, and Characteristics
Alcohol monitoring devices -- usually ankle bracelet -- monitor and sample alcohol vapors on the skin. They are worn by people convicted of drunk driving and especially those who must maintain sobriety. One such type is called SCRAM (Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring), a commercially available device. The impact of SCRAM on the rate of repeat drinking and driving offenders was assessed for some offenders in Nebraska and Wisconsin. There were very few repeat offenses wearing the SCRAM devices, less than 2 percent. When their assignment period was over, offenders using SCRAM showed slightly higher percentages of recidivism than the control offenders, though the difference was not statistically significant.
NHTSA Releases Two New Studies on Impaired Driving on U.S. Roads
The nation's decades-long campaign to combat drunk driving continues to make our roads safer, but use of marijuana and prescription drugs is increasingly prominent on the highways, creating new safety questions.
Process Overview of the High-Visibility Enforcement Programs Targeting Handheld Device Users in California and Delaware
The information in this process report includes: (1) how to plan and implement a regional/statewide HVE program that targets phone use while driving; (2) distracted driving enforcement practices; and (3) lessons learned from the California and Delaware distracted driving demonstration programs.
Evaluation of the NHTSA Distracted Driving High-Visibility Enforcement Demonstration Projects in California and Delaware
It was concluded that high-visibility enforcement can be implemented over widespread, multijurisdictional areas and may reduce the number of people who use handheld cell phones while driving.
Evaluation of Washington State Target Zero Teams Project
As part of its "Target Zero" strategic highway safety plan that has the goal to reduce traffic fatalities in Washington to zero by the year 2030, the State of Washington established three detachments of Washington State Patrol (WSP) troopers to focus on nighttime impaired-driving offenses.
Evaluation of a High-Visibility Enforcement Seat Belt Program on the Blue Ridge Parkway
The National Park Service implemented a high-visibility seat belt enforcement program on the Blue Ridge Parkway (BRP), involving low-cost media and strong enforcement partnerships, activity associated with significant increases in observed seat belt use on the BRP.
BAC and Crash Responsibility of Injured Older Drivers: An Analysis of Trauma Center Data
This study examined the distribution of blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in injured drivers 65 and older and the relationship of older-driver BAC to driving record and crash responsibility.
Understanding the Effects of Distracted Driving and Developing Strategies to Reduce Resulting Deaths and Injuries
A Report to Congress - December 2013
Ignition Interlock: An Investigation Into Rural Arizona Judges' Perceptions
This study sought to answer several questions regarding 2007 Arizona legislation requiring ignition interlock for all offenders convicted of Driving-Under-the-Influence (DUI), including first time DUI offenders. At the time the law was passed, Arizona was only one of two States [New Mexico being the other] to require ignition interlock for first time offenders.
Speed Management Program Plan
The goal of this Speed Management Program Plan is to improve public health and safety by reducing speeding-related fatalities and injuries.
Investigation of the Use and Feasibility of Speed Warning Systems
This report summarizes a feasibility evaluation of a speed monitoring system that provided speed warning feedback to drivers enrolled in a voluntary program, with particular emphasis on at-risk drivers, especially chronic speeders.
Drugs and Human Performance Fact Sheets
A panel of international experts on drug-impaired driving met in Seattle during August 2000 to review developments in the field of drugs and human performance over the last 10 years; to identify the specific effects that both illicit and prescription drugs have on driving; and to develop guidance for others when dealing with drug-impaired driving problems. Delegates represented the fields of psychopharmacology, behavioral psychology, drug chemistry, forensic toxicology, medicine, and law enforcement experts trained in the recognition of drug effects on drivers in the field. These Fact Sheets represent their conclusions.
Demonstration of the "Trauma Nurses Talk Tough" Seat Belt Diversion Program in North Carolina
The results of this study support the combination of high-visibility enforcement and a diversion classroom-based brief intervention as a means of increasing seat belt use in a predominately rural, low-belt-use area.
Evaluation of NHTSA Distracted Driving Demonstration Projects in Connecticut and New York
The communities of Hartford, Connecticut, and Syracuse, New York, implemented year-long campaigns to test whether NHTSA's high-visibility enforcement (HVE) model could be applied to reduce two specific forms of distracted driving – driving while talking on a hand-held cell phone or texting.
The Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2012
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS, Research Note (March 2014)
New Mexico’s Comprehensive Impaired-Driving Program
In late 2004, NHTSA provided funds to the New Mexico Department of Transportation to demonstrate a process for implementing a comprehensive State impaired-driving system. NHTSA also contracted with the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation to measure the effect of that system on various factors including driving-while-impaired (DWI) crash, injury, and fatality rates; DWI arrest rates; DWI conviction rates; blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns; and public awareness.
Bicycle Safety Education for Children From a Developmental and Learning Perspective
This report describes the nature of children and adolescents' bicycle injuries in addition to understanding the types of programs that exist and their effectiveness. It also explores the psychological domains related to riding a bicycle in childhood and adolescence such as motor skill development, cognitive development, brain development, and risk-taking and social influences.
2011 National Survey Of Speeding Attitudes And Behaviors
The third in a series of surveys on speeding that have provided data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the development of countermeasures and interventions to reduce speeding.
2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior (Vols 1, 2, 3)
This three-volume report is a survey that addressed safety and mobility issues; obtained trip information; and explored perceptions and use of public facilities such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and bicycle paths. It was administered to a probability-based sample of randomly selected people 16 and older.
Alcohol and Highway Safety: Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems as a Community Approach to Improving Traffic Safety
This report provides an overview of the use of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) as a countermeasure for those who have displayed, or could potentially display, harmful/hazardous drinking behaviors, including drinking and driving.
Licensing Procedures for Older Drivers
This study examined the driver licensing procedures in all 50 States as they apply to the older (65+) driver. A literature review examined reports of possible declines in older driver capabilities and the ability of a driver licensing agency to screen for them. The review also covered studies of licensing policies and procedures that had the potential ability to reduce older driver crash rates.
Characterizing Local EMS Systems
Although some information exists about the organization, financing, and delivery of EMS in the Nation's 200 largest cities, there is less information available about how services are organized outside large urban areas, in which 75 percent of the nation's population resides. There is little evidence to support alternative system designs and configurations in terms of their impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery. To this end, there is a need to document the variation in system configurations so they may be evaluated on a common basis.
Drowsy Driving and Automobile Crashes: Report and Recommendations
This report, sponsored by NHTSA and the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, is designed to provide direction to an NCSDR/NHTSA educational campaign to combat drowsy driving. The report presents the results of a literature review and opinions of the Expert Panel on Driver Fatigue and Sleepiness regarding key issues involved in the problem.
High-Visibility Enforcement on Driver Compliance With Pedestrian Right-of-Way Laws
Gainesville, Florida increases pedestrian safety by implementing year-long program. This study developed and evaluated strategies to increase driver yielding to pedestrians on a citywide basis using high-visibility pedestrian right-of-way enforcement. The Gainesville Police Department took the lead for the city and became a full partner in project development and research.
Identifying Countermeasure Strategies to Increase Safety of Older Pedestrians
The objective of this project was to identify appropriate countermeasures that will reduce older pedestrians' exposure to injuries and fatal crashes. This involved exploring countermeasures within the area of transportation as well as in other fields such as public health and education with the intention of identifying strategies that can be implemented to increase older pedestrian safety.
Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2008-2009
Statewide usage rates increased in 33 States (District of Columbia and Puerto Rico included) in 2008 and increased in 29 in 2009. The number of States increasing statewide belt use has decreased over time and the amount of annual increase was less than 1 percentage point for three of the last four years. It seems likely that more needs to be done to keep or extend gains made in seat belt awareness and belt use.
Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills
The objective of this project was to review the report from the 2003 University of Florida Consensus Conference as well as other important documents on similar topics, and to interview experts to obtain information about the strengths and weaknesses of these specialist-administered screening and assessment tools, self-screening instruments and training methods. The goal was not to reach consensus but to provide a rich background from the literature combined with expert opinions in an attempt to guide decisions and research goals related to these evaluation tools.
Seat Belt, DWI, and Other Traffic Violations Among Recent Immigrants in Florida and Tennessee
Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers' traffic violations and residency status. Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety violations among drivers of different immigrant status. The Florida Division of Motor Vehicles provided a stratified random sample of 286,746 drivers' records in its database, for the years 2003 to 2009. The Tennessee Department of Safety provided records for 5,680,728 people for 10 years, 2000 to 2010.
Validation of Rehabilitation Training Programs for Older Drivers
This project studied the effectiveness of four interventions designed to bolster safe performance among healthy older drivers: (1) Classroom driver education with supplemental behind-the-wheel instruction; (2) Computer-based exercises to improve speed of processing and divided attention; (3) Clinical occupational therapy-based exercises to improve visual skills and attention; and (4) Physical conditioning to improve strength, flexibility, and movement.
Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, Seventh Edition, 2013
This guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices (SHSOs) in selecting effective, evidence based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. It (1) describes major strategies and countermeasures that are relevant to SHSOs; (2) summarizes strategy/countermeasure use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation time; and (3) provides references to the most important research summaries and individual studies.
National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors - 2012
This is the second survey conducted by NHTSA to assess attitudes and self-reported behaviors related to distracted driving, cell phones, and texting. The first one was conducted in 2010. The survey employed a partial overlapping dual frame sample design of households with landline telephones as well as households that relied on cell phones, and collected data from interviews with drivers 16 and older. Because younger respondents tend to be underrepresented in landline telephone surveys, the survey included a landline telephone oversample of drivers 16 to 34 years old.
The Effect of Sight Distance Training on the Visual Scanning of Motorcycle Riders: A Preliminary Look
This study used eye tracker technology to monitor where motorcycle riders were looking as they rode over an open road course and a closed course. The purpose of the project was to determine if visual behavior differs between beginner riders who have received training on sight distance, beginner riders who have not received training, and experienced riders.
An Examination of Washington State's Vehicle Impoundment Law for Motorcycle Endorsements
In July 2007, Washington State modified its vehicle code to expressly allow law enforcement officers to impound motorcycles of motorcyclists operating without a proper motorcycle endorsement on their licenses. The objective for this study was to examine the effects of this law regarding implementation issues, rider and law enforcement awareness of the law, the degree to which the law is being enforced, whether endorsements and/or rider safety training increased, and the effect of the law on crashes.
Compendium of Traffic Safety Research Projects (1985-2013)
Brief summaries of research on alcohol-involved driving, drug-involved driving, occupant protection (e.g., seat belts, and child safety seats), speed and other unsafe driving behaviors, motorcyclist safety, pedestrian and bicyclist safety, older driver safety, novice and young driver safety, fatigue and distraction, and emergency medical services.
Washington’s Target Zero Teams Project: Reduction in Fatalities During Year One (Research Note)
In November 2006, the Washington Traffic Safety Commission (WTSC) sponsored the Nighttime Emphasis Enforcement Team (NEET) pilot project in Snohomish County. The goal of the NEET pilot project was to reduce serious injuries and fatalities due to impaired driving through the deployment of a fully dedicated team of Washington State Patrol (WSP) troopers concentrating on nighttime enforcement of impaired driving. NEET troopers were not responsible for responding to calls for service.
Teen Driver Safety: Review of the Literature on Driver Education Evaluation (2010 Update)
This report is part of the Large-scale Evaluation of Driver Education Project being conducted by the Traffic Injury Research Foundation and Northport Associates for the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. The study is sponsored by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; and Manitoba Public Insurance.
Motivations for Speeding (Vols I, II, III)
This is a three-volume report. It contains the results of a study that examined the speeding behavior of drivers in their own vehicles over the course of three to four weeks of naturalistic driving in urban (Seattle, Washington) and rural (College Station, Texas) settings.
Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida: A Case Study
This study examined the changes in belt usage associated with the primary law change and the contribution of the rural and statewide belt programs. Awareness surveys indicated that 94% of respondents knew of the primary law and 77% supported the law immediately after the law went into effect.
National Traffic Speeds Survey I: 2007
A field survey was conducted during Spring and Summer 2007 to measure travel speeds and prepare nationally representative speed estimates for all types of motor vehicles on freeways, arterial highways, and collector roads across the United States.
National Travel Speeds Survey II: 2009
A field survey was conducted during spring and summer 2009 as a longitudinal repetition to a similar effort undertaken in 2007. The goal was to measure travel speeds and prepare nationally representative speed estimates for all types of motor vehicles on freeways, arterial highways, and collector roads across the United States.
Studies and Reports
- Alcohol-related studies
- Drug-related studies
- 2007 National Roadside Survey
- Understanding and Messaging to At Risk Drivers
- Citizen Reporting of DUI - Extra Eyes to Identify Impaired Driving
- National Survey of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behaviors: 2008
- Alcohol and Highway Safety: Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems as a Community Approach to Improving Traffic Safety
Pedestrians and Bicycles
- Advancing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety: A Primer for Highway Safety Professionals (DOT HS 812 258)
- Effect of Electronic Device Use on Pedestrian Safety: A Literature Review (DOT HS 812 256)
- Bicycle Safety Education for Children From a Developmental and Learning Perspective
- 2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior (Volumes 1, 2, 3)
- High-Visibility Enforcement on Driver Compliance With Pedestrian Right-of-Way Laws
- Review of Studies on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety, 1991-2007
- Evaluation of the Miami-Dade Pedestrian Safety Project
- Vehicle Travel Speeds and Pedestrian Injuries
- National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior
- Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of Legacy Safe Routes to School Programs
- Applying Learning and Developmental Theories to Develop Safe Street-Crossing Behaviors
- The Effect of Sight Distance Training on the Visual Scanning of Motorcycle Riders: A Preliminary Look [Full Report]
- The Effect of Sight Distance Training on the Visual Scanning of Motorcycle Riders: A Preliminary Look [Traffic Tech]
- Effects of Alcohol on Motorcycle Riding Skills
- Evaluation of Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal in Arkansas and Texas
- Evaluation of the Reinstatement of the Universal Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana
- Evaluation of the Repeal of Motorcycle Helmet Laws in Kentucky and Louisiana
- Approaches to the Assessment of Entry-Level Motorcycle Training: An Expert Panel Discussion
- Motorcycle Crash Causes and Outcomes: Pilot Study
- Youth Motorcycle-Related Hospitalizations and Traumatic Brain Injuries in the United States, 2006
- Youth Motorcycle-Related Traumatic Brain Injury and State Helmet Laws, 2005–2007
- Effect of Electronic Device Use on Pedestrian Safety: A Literature Review (DOT HS 812 256)
- Process Overview of the High-Visibility Enforcement Programs Targeting Handheld Device Users in California and Delaware
- Evaluation of the NHTSA Distracted Driving High-Visibility Enforcement Demonstration Projects in California and Delaware
- Understanding the Effects of Distracted Driving and Developing Strategies to Reduce Resulting Deaths and Injuries - A Report to Congress
- Evaluation of NHTSA Distracted Driving Demonstration Projects in Connecticut and New York
- 2012 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (full report)
- Young Drivers Report the Highest Level of Phone Involvement in Crash or Near-Crash Incidences (Research Note)
- National Distracted Driving Telephone Survey Finds Most Drivers Answer the Call, Hold the Phone, and Continue to Drive
- National Phone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (Full Report)
- NHTSA Distracted Driving Research Plan (04/2010)
- Four High-Visibility Enforcement Demonstration Waves in Connecticut and New York Reduce Hand-Held Phone Use (Research Note)
- An Examination of Driver Distraction (Research Note)
- Driver distraction: A review of the current state-of-knowledge (04/2008)
- Driver Strategies for Engaging in Distracting Tasks Using In-Vehicle Technologies (03/2008)
- Traffic Safety Facts: Driver Electronic Device Use in 2008
- Traffic Safety Facts: Driver Cell Phone Use in 2006 - Overall Results
- More research on Distracted Driving
- Research on Drowsy Driving
Speeding / Aggressive Driving
- System Analysis of Automated Speed Enforcement Implementation (Full Report)
- System Analysis of Automated Speed Enforcement Implementation (Traffic Tech)
- Motivations for Speeding – Additional Data Analysis (Full Report)
- Motivations for Speeding - Additional Data Analysis (Traffic Tech)
- Automated Feedback to Foster Safe Driving in Young Drivers: Phase 2
- Investigation of the Use and Feasibility of Speed Warning Systems (Full Report)
- Investigation of the Use and Feasibility of Speed Warning Systems (Traffic Tech)
- 2011 National Survey Of Speeding Attitudes And Behaviors
- Motivations for Speeding (Vols I, II, III)
- National Traffic Speeds Survey I: 2007
- National Travel Speeds Survey II: 2009
- Demonstration and Evaluation of the Heed the Speed Pedestrian Safety Program
- Aggressive Driving Enforcement
- Automated Speed Enforcement in School Zones in Portland, OR
- A Program to Reduce Speeds in Residential Neighborhoods
- Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks in Washington State
- National Survey of Speeding and Unsafe Driving Attitudes and Behavior: 2002
- Impact of Setting and Enforcing Rational Speed Limits in Gulfport, MS
Emergency Medical Services
Occupant Safety Survey Reports
Younger and Older Drivers
Other studies ...
- Motor Vehicle Occupant Protection Facts (Children/Youth/Young Adults), DOT HS 812 251
- Compendium of Traffic Safety Research Projects (1985-2013)
- Drowsy Driving and Automobile Crashes: Report and Recommendations
- Seat Belt, DWI, and Other Traffic Violations Among Recent Immigrants in Florida and Tennessee
- Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 8th Edition, 2015
- Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 7th Edition, 2013
- Feasibility of Collecting Traffic Safety Data From Law Enforcement Agencies
- The Art of Appropriate Evaluation
- Technology Applications for Traffic Safety Programs: A Primer
- Driving With Visual Field Loss: An Exploratory Simulation Study
- School Bus Seat Belts and Carryover Effects in Elementary School Children
- Evaluation of Five Years of GM Funding for Public Information and Education Programs
- Effects of Practice on Interference From an Auditory Task While Driving: A Simulation Study
- Traffic Safety Performance Measures for States and Federal Agencies
- Strategies for Medical Advisory Boards and Licensing Review
U.S. Department of Transportation
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590