Pedestrians are one of the most at-risk groups of roadway users. While they account for only 3% of all Americans involved in traffic crashes, they represent 14% of all traffic fatalities. Based on 5-year averages, pedestrian fatalities are declining. However, pedestrian safety remains a significant traffic safety issue, and in the past three years, pedestrian fatality numbers have been increasing. In 2012, there were 4,743 pedestrians killed and approximately 76,000 pedestrians injured in traffic crashes in the United States.

To reduce pedestrian injuries and fatalities, NHTSA recommends a three-pronged approach of engineering, education, and enforcement. This guide primarily discusses the enforcement component of this approach, but it also includes information on the related engineering and education components.